Results of a 1995 survey conducted by the American Nurses Association indicated that nurses considered stress to be their number one occupational hazard. The nursing literature is replete with opinion articles on factors in the work setting that make situations conductive to stress for nurses; however, few articles report research results. It was during the 1970s that nurse researchers as well as sociologists and psychologists became interested in studying job stress for nurses. Early research on job stress for nurses centered on the disruptive effects of changing shifts on circadian rhythms and subjective sense of well-being.
Imogene King’s initial interest in theory was to develop a conceptual frame of reference to focus and organize nursing knowledge with the goal of identifying a systems theory for nursing (King, 1981). Introduced in 1981, King’s theory focused on individuals as personal systems, two or more individuals as interpersonal systems, and organized boundary systems that regulate roles, behaviors, values, and roles as social systems.
Most nurses working in an intensive care nursery have witnessed parents expressing in-tense need to hold their ill preterm infants. A new method of care addressing this need is “kangaroo care,” a term derived from its similarity to the way marsupials mother their immature young. During kangaroo care (KC), mothers simply hold their diaper-clad infant underneath their clothing, skin-to-skin, and upright between their breasts; if
The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality is derived from the disciplines of nursing and anthropology. Madeline Leininger conceptualized the theory in the mid-1950s while working as a clinical nurse specialist with disturbed children and their
Pregnancy, as a period of substantial biological and psychosocial change, can be expected to raise anxiety about the future. Anxiety is the psychological consequence of exposure to stressful circumstances that challenge one’s capacity to cope. Patterns of maternal anxiety may be adaptive or maladaptive from psychosocial and psychophysiological perspectives. Maladaptive psychosocial prenatal responses have been associated with post partal maternal adaptive difficulty, marital disturbance, and infant and childhood development problems.
The focus of measurement is the quantification of a characteristic or attribute of a person, object, or event. Measurement provides for a consistent and meaningful interpretation of the nature of an attribute when the same measurement process or instrument is used. The results of measurement are usually expressed in the form of
Due to increased life expectancy, older age is associated with the prevalence of multiple comorbidities (e.g., congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus), which often necessitate life-long and multiple medication intake. Consequently, older persons are the largest consumers of medication.
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage (Merskey & Bogduk, 1994). It is the most common reason for seeking health care. It occurs with many disorders, diagnostic tests, and treatments. It disables and distresses more people than any single disease. Since nurses spend more time with the patient in pain than do other health care providers, nurses need to understand the pathophysiology of pain, the physiologic and psychological consequences of acute and chronic pain, and the methods used to treat pain. Nurses encounter patients in pain in a variety of settings, including acute care, outpatient, and long-term care settings, as well as in the home. Thus, they must have the knowledge and skills to assess pain, to implement pain relief strategies, and to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, regardless of setting.
Primary care was first comprehensively defined by the World Health Assembly following a seminal conference in Alma-Ata in 1977 (Health for All by the Year 2000). Building upon the key aspects of Alma-Ata, the 1978World Health Organization emphasized the defining aspects of primary care as essential, first-level health care embedded in the community, available to all, evidence-based, socially acceptable, and
Mental Health Services Research (MHSR) is a relatively new, evolving area of health services research that focuses on access to, costs of, and quality of mental health care services within diverse health care delivery systems and socio-politico-cultural contexts (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH],2003). The importance of MHSR to inform improvements to public health services has become increasingly recognized in recent
Individualized assessment of cognitive status is necessary for the planning and evaluation of nursing care to determine the patient’s capacity to understand instructions, be an active participant in his/her care, make health care decisions, and detect changes that will determine subsequent nursing actions. It is especially important to assess the cognitive status of elders who may have an undetected mild cognitive impairment or delirium; for example, assessing baseline cognitive status of hospitalized elders would allow early detection of side effects from receiving a new medication or of
A formal definition of mentoring is a spontaneous pairing by two individuals or a grouping of two or more individuals who feel they can assist each other in professional and sometimes personal growth. The mentor–mentee relationship tends to evolve and endure for the rest of one’s career and consists of counseling, teaching, networking, and coaching. Vance and Olson (1998) described mentoring as a developmental and caring support or connection between two people which assists with socialization at each stage of a mentee’s career.
Immigration is a process of movement of people from one country to another. Immigrants experience a transition that begins with preparation for immigration and includes the act of immigrating, the process of settling in, and over time, identity