Pain Management

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage (Merskey & Bogduk, 1994). It is the most common reason for seeking health care. It occurs with many disorders, diagnostic tests, and treatments. It disables and distresses more people than any single disease. Since nurses spend more time with the patient in pain than do other health care providers, nurses need to understand the pathophysiology of pain, the physiologic and psychological consequences of acute and chronic pain, and the methods used to treat pain. Nurses encounter patients in pain in a variety of settings, including acute care, outpatient, and long-term care settings, as well as in the home. Thus, they must have the knowledge and skills to assess pain, to implement pain relief strategies, and to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, regardless of setting.

NURSING RESEARCH: Mental Health in Public Sector Primary Care

Primary care was first comprehensively defined by the World Health Assembly following a seminal conference in Alma-Ata in 1977 (Health for All by the Year 2000). Building upon the key aspects of Alma-Ata, the 1978World Health Organization emphasized the defining aspects of primary care as essential, first-level health care embedded in the community, available to all, evidence-based, socially acceptable, and

Nursing Research: Mental Health Services Research

Mental Health Services Research (MHSR) is a relatively new, evolving area of health services research that focuses on access to, costs of, and quality of mental health care services within diverse health care delivery systems and socio-politico-cultural contexts (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH],2003). The importance of MHSR to inform improvements to public health services has become increasingly recognized in recent

Nursing Research: Mental Status Measurement: The Mini-Mental State Examination

Individualized assessment of cognitive status is necessary for the planning and evaluation of nursing care to determine the patient’s capacity to understand instructions, be an active participant in his/her care, make health care decisions, and detect changes that will determine subsequent nursing actions. It is especially important to assess the cognitive status of elders who may have an undetected mild cognitive impairment or delirium; for example, assessing baseline cognitive status of hospitalized elders would allow early detection of side effects from receiving a new medication or of

Nursing Research : Mentoring

A formal definition of mentoring is a spontaneous pairing by two individuals or a grouping of two or more individuals who feel they can assist each other in professional and sometimes personal growth. The mentor–mentee relationship tends to evolve and endure for the rest of one’s career and consists of counseling, teaching, networking, and coaching. Vance and Olson (1998) described mentoring as a developmental and caring support or connection between two people which assists with socialization at each stage of a mentee’s career.

Nursing Research: Immigrant Women

Immigration is a process of movement of people from one country to another. Immigrants experience a transition that begins with preparation for immigration and includes the act of immigrating, the process of settling in, and over time, identity

Hemodynamic Monitoring

Hemodynamic monitoring is the use of advanced technology and application of physio-logical principles to clinically assess the cardiac function and circulatory system in critically ill patients. The pulmonary artery catheter was first introduced in 1970 by Dr. Jeremy Swan (Swan et al., 1970), and continues to be a frequently used tool in the critical care setting. The catheter tip is positioned in the distal pulmonary artery and is used to monitor pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures, and to obtain blood samples to determine mixed venous oxygenation. The distal balloon port is used to measure the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP)when the balloon port is inflated with 1.5 cc of air. 


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