Health systems delivery is a global term used to define the structures and processes by which health care is provided to individuals and populations. The term generally refers to the collective availability of services rather than to an individual organization by itself, although larger organizations such as academic health science centers may use the term to reflect the extent of their capacity. The features that distinguish health systems from other connected services are their level of differentiation, their extent of centralization, and their degree of integration (Bazzoli, Shortell, Dubbs, Chan, &Kralovec, 1999).
Health services research is a part of a broad scientific continuum which addresses fundamental mechanisms of health and disease including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and the evaluation of health care services and the system in which they are delivered.
The menstrual cycle is a truly gender-specific process that has a profound effect on women’s lives. When viewed in the general context of biological rhythms, the menstrual cycle requires a complex sequence of physiological events coordinated by the hypothalamus in conjunction with the pituitary glands, ovaries, and uterus, along with the adrenal and thyroid systems, and that adapts to environmental phenomena. Derived from the Latin mensis (month), the menstrual cycle is marked by the shedding of the
The prevention of mental disorders is based on a science that examines the incidence, prevalence, causes, and consequences of public health problems and the development, evaluation, refinement, and dissemination of interventions intended to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of those problems (Coie et al., 1993; Institute of
The concept of health is a critical concept for nursing as it informs the profession’s goals, scope, and outcomes of practice. The goals of nursing are to restore, maintain, and promote health; the scope of nursing’s concern is with problems of health. When nursing practice assists people back to a healthy condition, successful outcomes are correctly declared. To be effective, nurses must have an understanding of health
Hydration is the chemical combination of a substance with water, the addition of water to a substance or tissue (Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 1997, p. 920). Water is essential to sustain all cellular function (Chernoff, 1999). The percentage of water in older adults is approximately 60%. Clinicians contend that by promoting sufficient quantity and quality of fluids, especially water, fluid balance will more likely be achieved. Dehydration is the rapid weight loss of greater than 3% of body weight (Weinberg, A. D., & Minaker, 1995, p. 1553).
The causes of homelessness are complex, and mental illness and related mood disorders add additional layers of difficulties. Approximately 25% of the homeless population suffers from some serious mental illness (Kusmer, 2002). Many homeless suffer from common mental illnesses such as depression, psychotic disorders, substance abuse, and personality disorders. In addition, the population of homeless is very diverse including all ethnic groups, usually ranging in age between 30 to 50 years of age, unmarried, unemployed, with the largest segment of the population being women (Martens, 2002).