Injuries are defined in two ways: (a) the physical damage to the body caused by the transfer of mechanical, chemical, or thermal energy (e.g., a broken bone, salicylate-related poisoning, or frostbite to a toe); and (b) as the event that caused the damage (e.g., motor vehicle crash, aspirin ingestion, or prolonged exposure to cold).
Nursing practice is becoming increasingly complex and diverse, and many changes have been noted by authors in psychiatric mental health nursing in recent years (Jones, 2003). Increasingly, mental health services are taking place in the community rather than in inpatient settings.
Informed consent is the process by which a potential subject or a legal representative is given explanations about the purpose of the research and the risks, inconveniences, costs, potential benefits, and right to withdraw from the study without repercussions. This must occur prior to obtaining written or verbal consent for enrollment. The use of in-formed consent for research and the process for obtaining it have evolved over the past 50 years.
Job satisfaction is the degree to which individuals like their jobs. As a general attitudinal construct, job satisfaction reflects a positive affective orientation toward work and the organization, whereas job dissatisfaction reflects a negative affective orientation. Job satisfaction has been studied extensively in nursing, psychology,
Results of a 1995 survey conducted by the American Nurses Association indicated that nurses considered stress to be their number one occupational hazard. The nursing literature is replete with opinion articles on factors in the work setting that make situations conductive to stress for nurses; however, few articles report research results. It was during the 1970s that nurse researchers as well as sociologists and psychologists became interested in studying job stress for nurses. Early research on job stress for nurses centered on the disruptive effects of changing shifts on circadian rhythms and subjective sense of well-being.
Imogene King’s initial interest in theory was to develop a conceptual frame of reference to focus and organize nursing knowledge with the goal of identifying a systems theory for nursing (King, 1981). Introduced in 1981, King’s theory focused on individuals as personal systems, two or more individuals as interpersonal systems, and organized boundary systems that regulate roles, behaviors, values, and roles as social systems.
Most nurses working in an intensive care nursery have witnessed parents expressing in-tense need to hold their ill preterm infants. A new method of care addressing this need is “kangaroo care,” a term derived from its similarity to the way marsupials mother their immature young. During kangaroo care (KC), mothers simply hold their diaper-clad infant underneath their clothing, skin-to-skin, and upright between their breasts; if